The Effect of Teaching Communication Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Self- efficacy in Content-based Courses

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of English Language, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching communication strategies on students’ self-efficacy in speaking in content-based courses in Iranian EFL context. To this end, 30 students in two content-based classes, one as the experimental group and another as the control group, in SAMA private junior high school school in Tabriz, participated in this study. Communication strategy instruction was taught explicitly over a period of 16 one-hour sessions to the experimental group, while the control group didn’t receive any explicit communication strategy teaching. Data on the learners’ self-efficacy in speaking were collected through a researcher made questionnaire. The results of the data analysis using ANCOVA revealed the positive effect of teaching communication strategies (CSs) on students’ self efficacy in speaking in content-based courses in Iranian EFL context. The findings of this study have important implications for material developers for designing activities involving communication strategies and for teacher training programs for teaching communication strategies to improve learners’ self-efficacy regarding speaking skill.


Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Rahmachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior. Vol. 4, pp. 71-81. New York: Academic Press.
Bialystok, E. (1990). Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second language use. London: Blackwell.
Bongaerts, T., & Poulisse, N. (1989). Communication strategies in L1 and L2: Same or different? Applied Linguistics, 10, 253-268.
Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1, 12-25. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from

Chamot, A. U. (2005). Language learning strategy instruction: Current issues and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112-130.
Chen, Y. (2006). The influence of partial English programs in Taiwan on kindergarteners’  perception of Chinese and English languages and cultures. Asian EFL Journal, 8(1), 1- 18.
Dornyei,  Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOL Quarterly, 29(1),  55-85.
Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning. Oxford: Blackwell.
Færch, C., & Kasper, G. (1984).Two ways of defining communication strategies. Language  Learning, 34(1), 45-63.
Gahungu, O. N., (2007). The relationship among strategy use, self-efficacy, and language ability in language ability in foreign language learners. Doctoral Dissertation. Northern   Arizona University. Retrieved June 20,  2011, from http:// Dissertation/supporting-files/Dissetation-Olive.pdf.       
Gallagher Brett, A. (2001). Teaching communication strategies to beginners. Language Learning  Journal, 24, 53-61. 
Grabe, W., & Stoller,  F. L. (1997). Content-based instruction: Research foundations. In M. A. Snow, & D. M. Brinton (Eds.), The content-based classroom: Perspectives on integrating         language and content (pp. 5–21). NY: Longman.
Kasper, G. & Kellerman,  E. (Eds.). (1997). Communication strategies: Psycholinguistic and  sociolinguistic perspective. London: Longman.
Kellerman, E. (1991). Compensatory strategies in second language research: A critique, a  revision, and some (non-) implications for the classroom. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman,   L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/Second language pedagogy   research:  A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (174-199). Clevedon: Multilingual           Matters.
Lam, W.Y. K., (2006). Gauging the effects of ESL oral communication strategy teaching: A multi-method approach. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching,3(2), 142-
Madrid, D., & García Sánchez, E. (2001). “Content-based Second Language Teaching”, In E.García Sánchez (Eds.), Present and future trends in TEFL (pp. 101-134).  University of Almería: Secretariatpublications.  
.Mahyuddin, R., Elias, H., Cheong, L. S., Muhamad, M. F., Noordin, N., &  Abdullah, M. C. (2006).The relationship between students' self-efficacy and their English language        Achievement their English language achievement. Journal Pendidikdan, 21, 61- 71.
McDonough, S. H. (1999). Learner strategies. Language Teaching, 32, 1-18.
McDonough, S. H. (2006). Learner strategies. ELT Journal, 60, 63-70.
Mei, A. & Nathalang, S. S. (2010). Use of communication strategies by Chinese EFL learners. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 33(3), 110-125.
Nezami, E, Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1996). Persian adaptation of the general self- efficacy scale. Retrieved June 7, 2011 from from http://userpage.fu- persean.htm
Pajares, F. (1997).Current directions in self-efficacy research. In M. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich   (Eds.). Advances in motivation and achievement. Volume 10, (pp. 1-49).  Greenwich, CT:
            JAI Press.
Rahimi, A ., & Abedini., A. (2009). The Interface between EFL learners’ self- efficacy concerning  listening comprehension and listening proficiency. Novitas-ROYAL, 3(1), 14-28.
Rossiter, M. J. (2003). It’s like chicken but bigger: Effects of communication strategy in the  ESL classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 60, 105-121.
Tarone, E. (1981). Some thoughts on the notion of communication strategy. TESOL Quarterly,  15(3), 285-295.
Willems, G. M. (1987). Communication strategies and their significance in foreign language Teaching. System, 15 (3), 351-364.
Williams, J. (2006). Combining communication strategies and vocabulary development. The Internet TESL Journal, 12(2). Retrieved September 5, 2011 from   Techniques/Williams-CommunicationStrategies.html