Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bridgeman, B., & Lewis, C. (1994). The relationship of essay and multiple-choice scores with grades in college courses. Educational Testing Service. Journal of Educational Measurement, 31 (1), pp. 37-50.
Bridgeman, B. & Rock, D. A. (1993). Relationships among multiple-choice and open-ended analytical questions. Educational Testing Service. Journal of Educational Measurement, 30 (4), pp. 313-329. Retrieved February 14, 2008 from
Carrier, M. L., & Pashler, H. (1992). The influence of retrieval on retention. Memory and Cognition, 20, 633-642.
Christian, M.R., Timothy, W. B., Richard, R. S., & Wood, B. (2002). Preparing effective essay questions. Retrieved May 10, 2007 from E:retentionPREPARING EFFECTIVE ESSAY QUESTIONS.htm
Daraghmah, R. A. (1997). The effect of questions’ types and levels on students' academic achievement. M.A thesis, Nablus, Palestine. Retrieved March 14, 2007 from E:otheresgeocities_com-rafidr.htm
Farhadi, H., Ja'farpur, A. J., & Birjandi, P. (2004). Testing language skills: from theory to practice. Tehran: SAMT
Hambleton, R. K., & Murphy, E. (1992). A psychometric perspective on authentic measurement.Applied Measurement in Education, 5 (1), pp.1-16.
Haynie, W.J. (1992). Post hoc analysis of test items written by technology education teachers. Journal of Technology Education, 4(1), 27-40.
Haynie, W.J. (1997). Effects of anticipation of tests on delayed retention learning. Journal of Technology Education, 9 (1),1-12.
Haynie, W.J. (2003). Effects of take-home tests and study questions on retention learning in technology education. Journal of Technology Education, 2, 1-17.
Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentionaluses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 513-541
Nungester, R. J., & Duchastel, P. C. (1982). Testing versus review: Effects on retention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(1), 18-22.
Perkins, K. (1984). An analysis of four item types used in testing EFL reading comprehension. USA: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, RELC Journal, 15 (2), DEC. Retrieved February 14, 2008 from
Roediger, H. L., & Karpicke, J. D. (2007). Repeated retrieval during learning is the key to long-term retention. Journal of Memory and Language, 58 (2), pp. 1-150.
Roediger, H. L., & Marsh, E. J. (n.d.).The memorial consequences of multiple-choice testing. Retrieved December 10, 2007 from
retentionThe memorial consequences 1 RUNNING HEAD TESTING EFFECTS the Memorial Consequences of Multiple-choice Testing.htm
Tulving, E. (1967). The eﬀects of presentation and recall of material in free recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 175–184.
Tulving, E., & Pearlstone, Z. (1966). Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5, 381-391.
Woodford, K., & Bancroft, P. (2005). Multiple-choice questions not considered harmful. Retrieved December10, 2007 from Multiple Choice Questions Not Considered Harmful.htm