The Impact of Mixed Planning on the Accuracy of Iranian Learners’ Oral Performance

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Islamic Azad University-Science and Research Branch

Abstract

This study set out to explore the impact of three levels of task planning on the accuracy of task-based oral performance with narrative task types among sixty Iranian sophomores majoring in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) at Islamic Azad University – Tabriz Branch. It was hypothesized that simultaneous pre-task/on-line planning would lead to more accurate performance. To test the research hypothesis, a quasi experimental design was used with three levels of planning (pre-task planning (PTP), on-line task planning (OLP), pre/on-line task planning (POLP). The participants in the study included 60 pre-intermediate TEFL sophomores at Islamic Azad University-Tabriz Branch who were selected out of a population of 200 TEFL sophomores on the basis of their scores on a proficiency test and an oral pre-test. One-way ANOVA run on the post-test data indicated statistically significant effects on the accuracy of the participants' task-based oral performance under POLP planning condition. However, there was no significant effect on accuracy as a result of PTP and OLP planning. The independent samples t-test analysis revealed significant accuracy gains in the POLP groups whereas the same improvements were not observed in the PTP and OLP planners.  
 

Keywords


Anderson, J. (1983). Rules of the mind. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.

Bygate, M. (1996). Effects of task repetition: Appraising the development of second language learners. In J. Willis & D. Willis (Eds.), Challenge and change in language teaching (pp. 136-146). London: Macmillan.

Bygate, M. (1999a). Task as the context for the framing, re-framing and un-framing of Language. System 27, 33-48.

Bygate, M. (1999b). Quality of language and purpose of task: Patterns of learners' language on two oral communication tasks. Language Teaching Research 3, 185-214.

Crookes, G. (1989). Planning and interlanguage variation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 11, 367-383.

Ellis, R. (1987). Interlanguage variability in narrative discourse: Style shifting in the use of  the past tense. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 9, 1-20.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2005). Planning and task performance in a second language. Philadelphia: John Benjamins B.V. Publication.

Ellis, R. (2007). Educational settings and second language learning. Asian EFL Journal 9(4), 12-18.

Foster, P. & Skehan, P. (1996). The influence of planning and task type on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18, 299-323.

Foster, P. & Skehan, P. (1999). The influence of planning and focus of planning on task- based performance. Language Teaching Research 3, 215-247.

Heaton, J. B. (1975). Beginning composition through pictures.  London: Longman Group Limited.

Levelt, W.J.M. (1989). Speaking: from intention to articulation. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Lantolf, J. (2000). Second language learning as a mediated process. Language Teaching 33, 79-96.

Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.). Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). San Diego: Academic Press.

Lynch, T. & Maclean, J. (2000). Exploring the benefits of task repetition and recycling for classroom language learning. Language Teaching Research 4(3), 221-250.

McLaughlin, B. (1990). Restructuring. Applied Linguistics 11, 113-128. 

Mehnert, U. (1998). The effects of different lengths of time for planning on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 20, 83-108. 

Mitchell, R. & Myles, F. (2004). Second language learning theories (2nd Ed.). London: Hodder Arnold.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ortega, L. (1999). Planning and focus on form in L2 oral performance. Studies in Second  Language Acquisition, 21, 108-148.

Richards, J. C. (1997). Expanding tactics for listening. New York: Oxford University Press.

Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of Task-based Instruction. Applied  Linguistics 17(1), 38-62.

Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Skehan, P. & Foster, P. (1997). Task type and task processing conditions as influences on foreign language performance. Language Teaching Research 1, 185-211.

Skehan, P. & Foster, P. (1999). The influence of task structure and processing condition on narrative retellings. Language Learning 49, 93-120.

Wenden, A. L. (2002). Learner development in language learning. Applied  Linguistics, 23(1), 32-55. 

Wigglesworth, G. (1977). And investigation of planning time and proficiency level on oral  test discourse. Language Testing, 14, 85-106.

Willis, J. (1996). A flexible framework for task-based learning. In J. Willis, & D. Willis (Eds.). Challenge and change in language teaching (pp. 52-62). Oxford: Heinemann.

Wingglesworth, G. (1997). An investigation of planning time and proficiency level on oral test discourse. Language Testing 14, 85-106.

Yuan, F. & Ellis, R. (2003). The effects of pre-task planning and on-line planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in L2 oral production. Applied Linguistics 24(1), 1-27

Yule, G. (1996). Referential communication tasks. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.