Note: Studies included in the meta-analysis are marked with an asterisk (*).
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* Asaadinezhad, N., & Gorjian , B. (2015). The effect of reconstruction podcast on pre-intermediate EFL learners’ speaking proficiency. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 8(3), 132‐145.
Askari, K., & Langroudi, J. (2014). The effectiveness of Ur model in developing Iranian EFL learners’ fluency and accuracy in speaking. Applied Linguistic and Language Research, 1(1), 75-86.
* Baradaran, A., & Khalili, A. (2009). The impact of online chatting on EFL learners’ oral fluency. Journal of English Language Studies, 1(1), 63-77.
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* Birjandi, P., & Ahangari, S. (2008). Effects of task repetition on the fluency, complexity and accuracy of Iranian EFL learners’ oral discourse. The Asian EFL Journal, 10(3), 28-52.
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* Farrokhi, F., & Mahmoudi, A. (2014). A socio-cognitive approach to developing oral fluency and naturalness in Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 3(2), 1-15.
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* Ghenaati, M. J., & Madani, D. (2015). The effect of exposure to TV and radio news on the improvement of Iranian EFL learners’ speaking fluency. Research Journal of English Language and Literature, 3(4), 398-411.
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* Hassaskhah, J., & Rahimizadeh Asli, S. (2015). Photomontage: A new task to change speaking into talking classrooms. Cogent Education, 2, 1-11. Retrieved May, 2016 from https://www.cogentoa.com/article/10.1080/2331186X.2015.1125333.pdf
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* Maftoon, P., & Kolahi, S. (2009). The impact of recasts on the syntactic accuracy of Iranian EFL university students’ oral discourse. The Journal of Applied Linguistics, (2)2, 160-178.
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* Moradi, Z., & Talebi, S. H. (2014). The effect of pre-speaking strategies instruction in strategic planning on Iranian EFL students’ awareness as well as students’ fluency and lexical resources in speaking. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1224 – 1231.
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