The Comparative Effect of Antonym in-Text Glosses and Description in-Text Glosses on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehensio

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

English Department , Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The present study was carried out to investigate the comparative effect of antonym in-text glosses and description in-text glosses on a group of Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension. To fulfill the purpose of this study, 60 female intermediate students between 18 and 19 years old were selected among a total number of 90 through their performance on a piloted PET. These 60 participants were non-randomly divided into two equally populated experimental groups. During the process of this study, in one of the experimental groups the participants were given reading texts with antonym in-text glosses and in the other group, the participants were given reading texts with description in-text glosses. A piloted reading comprehension posttest (derived from another sample of PET) was administered at the end of the treatment to both groups and their mean scores on the test were compared through an independent samples t-test. The result led to the rejection of the null hypothesis, thereby, demonstrating that the learners in the description in-text glosses group benefited significantly more than those in the antonym in-text glosses group in terms of improving their reading comprehension.
 

Keywords


 

REFRENCES

Abdullah, F., & Azari, F. (2012). Review of Effects of Glosses on Reading Comprehension of ESL/EFL Learners. International Journal of Innovative Ideas (IJII),12(3), 57-71.

Abu Seileek, A. F. (2011). Hypermedia Annotation Presentation: The Effect of Location and Type on the EFL Learners’ Achievement in Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition. (2011). Computers & Education, 1281-1291.

Ajideh, p. (2006). Schema-theory based consideration on Pre-reading Activities in ESPText book. The Asian EFL Journal Quarterly, 16(2), 1-19. Retrieved from http://www.asian–efl-journal.htm.

Albeckay, E. (2014). Developing Reading Skills through Critical Reading Programme among Undergraduate EFL Students in Libya. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences,123,175- 181.

Alderson, J. C. (1984). Reading in a Foreign Language: A Reading Problem or a Language Problem? In J. C. Alderson & A. H. Urquhart (Eds.), Reading in a Foreign Language (pp.1-27). New York: Longman.

Aldeson, J. C. (2000). Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Alderson, R. C. (1994). Role of the Reader's Schema in Comprehension, Learning, and Memory.  In R. B., Ruddell, T. & Singer, H (Eds), Theoretical models and process of reading (pp.85-121 ).  Newark: International reading association.

Al-Seghayer, K. (2001). The Effect of Multimedia Annotation Modes on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Comparative Study. Language Learning & Technology, 5(1), 202-232. Retrieved from: http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num1/alseghayer/default.html/

Alyousef, H. S. (2006). Teaching Reading Comprehension to ESL/EFL Learners. Journal of Language and Learning, 5, 63-73.

Amer, A. (1997). The Effect of the Teacher's Reading Aloud on the Reading Comprehension of EFL Students. ELT Journal, 51(1), 43-47.

Anderson, N. (1999). Exploring Second Language Reading: Issues and Strategies. Toronto: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

Anderson, N. J. (1991). Individual Differences in Strategy Use in Second Language Reading and Testing. The Modern Language Journal, 75, 460-472.

Anderson, R. C., & Pearson, P. D. (1984). A Schema-theoretic View of Basic Processes in Reading Comprehension. In P. L, Carrell, J. Devine, & D.E.Eskey, (Eds.), Interactive

Approaches to Second Language Reading (pp. 80-94). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, R. C., & Urquhart, A. H. (1984). Reading in a Foreign Language. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Antes, T. (2014). Audio glossing during information gap-activities: The effect on learner output. System, 45, 163–174. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.05.009

Azari, F. (2012). Review of Effects of Textual Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning. International Journal of Innovative Ideas (IJII),12(2),13-24.

 

Babaie Shalmani, H., & Razmjoo, S. (2015). Multimedia Annotation: Comparability of Gloss Modalities and their Implications for Reading Comprehension. Journal of English language teaching and learning, 7 (15), 1-41.

Bagheri, Z., Mehrpour, S., & Sadighi, F. (2012). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies to Iranian EFL Pre-university Students. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), 4 (1), 107-139

Barekat, B., Farhad Asa, N., & Hassaskhah, J. (2014). Reading Performance of Iranian EFL Learners in Paper and Digital tasks. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS),33, 1-21.

Bell, F., & Leblanc, L. (2000). The Language of Glosses in L2 Reading on Computer: Learner's preferences. Hispania, 83, 274-285.

Bernhardt, E. B. (1983). Testing Foreign Language Reading Comprehension: in the immediate recall protocol. Die Unterrichtspraxis, 16, 27-33.

Bernhardt, E. B. (2000). Second-language Reading as a Case Study of Reading Scholarship in the 20th century. In M. L., Kamil, P.,  Mosenthal,,  D. Pearson & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research. (pp. 793-811). Mahwah, NJ:  Erlbaum.

Capellini, S., Chunha, V., & Pinto, C. (2014). Reading Comprehension Intervention Program for Teachers from 3rd grade Students.  Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1339 – 1345. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Carrel, P. L. (1983). Background knowledge in second language comprehension. Language Learning and Communication, 2, 25-34.

Carrel, P. L. (1985). Facilitating ESL Reading by Teaching Text Structure. TESOL Quarterly,18(3), 441-469.

Carrel, P.L. (1991). Second Language Reading: Reading Ability or Language Proficiency? Applied linguistics, 12(2), 26-40.

Carrel, P. L., & Eisterhold, J. C. (1983). Schema Theory and ESL Reading. TESOL Quarterly, 17(4), 553-573.

Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language (3rd ed). New  York: Cambridge University Press.

Chadwick, A. C., & Kentrid, R.W. (2015). The Perception of Gloss: A Review. Vision Research, 221-235.

Cha, K. A., & Swaffar, J. (1998). The Case for a Procedural Model as a Multiple Measure of Reading Comprehension. System 26, 205-222.

Cha, L.  H. (2002). The Role of Gloss in Vocabulary Learning. Modern Language Journal, 51(5), 131(2).

Chastain, K. (1988). Developing Second Language Skills: Theory and Practice (3rd ed). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Cheng, Y., L., & Good, R. (2009). L1 Glosses: Effects on EFL Learners' Reading

Comprehension and Vocabulary Retention. Reading in a Foreign Language,

21(2),119–142.

Chiang, M. (2007). Improved Reading Attitudes and Enhanced English Reading

Comprehension via Literature Circles. Lagos paper in English studies, 1(1), 168-183.

Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1996). Effects of Multimedia Annotations on Vocabulary Acquisition. Modern Language Journal, 80(2), 183-198.

Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1997). Research on Text Comprehension in Multimedia Environments. The Modern Language Journal, 85(3), 165-182.

Dabaghi, A., & Shams, N (2014). Iranian EFL Learners L2 Reading Comprehension: The Effect of Online Annotations via Interactive White boards. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 3(6), 37-56.

Davies, F. (1995). Introducing Reading. Longman: Penguin English.

Davis, J. N. (1989). Facilitating Effects of Marginal Glosses on Foreign Language Reading. The Modern Language Journal, 73(1), 41-48.

Dehghan, H., & Sotoudehnama, E. (2013). The Effect of CALL Software on Iranian EFL learners' Reading Comprehension. Iranian Journal of Language Issues (IJLI),1 (1).

Dreyer, C. (1998). Improving Students' Reading Comprehension by means of Strategy Instruction. Journal of Language Teaching, 31(1), 18-29.

Eskey, D. (1988). Holding in the bottom: An Interactive Approach to the Language Problems of Second Language Readers. In P. L. Carrell, J. Devine & D. Eskey (Eds.), Eskey, D. (Eds.), Interactive Approaches to the Second Language Reading (pp. 93-100). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Eskey, D. E. (2005). Reading in a Second Language. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Fadaei, B., & Hashemian, M. (2013). The Effect of Lexical Glossing Types on Persian L2 Learners' Reading and Listening. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 490-500.

Farhady, H. (2005). Techniques for Effective Reading. Tehran; Rahnama Press.

Farhadi, H., & Mirhassani, S.A. (2005). Reading through Interaction. Tehran: Zabankadeh Publication.

Gan, X. (2014). Study on the Effects of Gloss Type on Chinese EFL Learners' Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition. Theory and practice in language studies, 4(6), 1251-1256.

Geva, E. (1983). Facilitating Reading Comprehension through Flow Charting. Reading Research Quarterly, 18, 389-405.

Ghanbari, M., & Marzban, A. (2014). Effect of Extensive Reading on Incidental Vocabulary Retention. Procedia, social and behavioral sciences, 3854-3858.

Ghasemi, P., & Hajizadeh, R. (2011). Teaching L2 Reading Comprehension through Short Story. ELT Journal, 78(4), 69-73.

Goodman,  K. (1970). Reading: A psycholinguistic Guessing Gam. In H. Singer & R. Ruddell (Eds.) Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading (pp. 259-272). Neward, DE: International Reading Association.

Grabe, W. (1991). Current Developments in Second Language Reading Research. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 375-406.

Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2002). Teaching and Researching Reading. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Gunobgunob-Mirasol, R. (2015). The Relative Effect of Glossing Instruction on College Students' Reading Comprehension. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 82-90.

Hokmi, M. (2005). Iranian ESP Students' Reading Comprehension in Task-based Language Teaching Approach. Roshd FLT, 19, 58-64.

Holley, F. M., & King, J. K. (1971). Vocabulary Glosses in Foreign Language Reading Materials. Language learning, 21, 213-219.

Huang, Y. (2003). The Effect of Vocabulary Glosses and Example Sentences on Junior High Shool EFL Students' Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning. Unpublishedmaster's thesis. National Cheng Kung University.

Hulstijn, J. H. (1993). When do Foreign-language Readers Look up the meaning of Unfamiliar Words? The influence of task and learner variables. Modern Language Journal, 77(2), 139-147.

Hulstijn, J. H., Hollander, M., & Greidanus, T. (1996). Incidental Vocabulary Learning by Advanced Foreign Language Students: the Influence of Marginal Glosses, Dictionary Use, and Reoccurrence of Unknown Words. The Modern Language Journal, 80, 327-339.

Jacobs, G. (1991). Second Language Reading Recall as a Function of Vocabulary Glossing and Selected other Variables. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Hawaii atManoa, Honolulu.

Jacobs, G., Dufon, P., & Hong, F. C. (1994). L1 and L2 Glosses in Reading Passages: Their Effectiveness for Increasing Comprehension and Vocabulary Knowledge. Journal of Research in Reading, 17, 19-28.

Jacobs, G. M. (1994). What Lurks in the Margin: Use of Vocabulary Glosses as a Strategy in Second Language Reading? Issues in Applied Linguistics, 5(1), 115-137.

Jalilvand, M., & karimi, L.(2014). The Effect of Peer and Teacher Scaffolding on the Reading Comprehension of EFL Learners in a Symmetrical and Symmetrical groups. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS), 32 (4), 1-17.

Johnson, D. D. (1982). Effects on Reading Comprehension of Building Background Knowledge. TESOL QUARTERLY, 16, 503-516.

Khatib, M. , & Nasrollahi, A. (2012, February). Enhancing Reading Comprehension through Short Stories in Iranian EFL Learners. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 7(2), 240-246.

Kim, D., & Park, H. (2011). Reading-strategy Use by English as a Second Language Learners in Online Reading Tasks. Computer & Education, 2156-2166.

Knight, S. (1994). Dictionary use while reading: The effects on comprehension and vocabulary acquisition for students of different verbal abilities. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 284-299.

Ko, M. H. (1995). Glossing is Incidental and Intentional Learning of Foreign Language Vocabulary and Reading. University of Hawaii working papers in ESL, 13(2), 49-94.

Ko, M. H. (2005). Gloss, Comprehension, and Strategy Use. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17, 25-64.

Laufer, B. (1991). Knowing a Word: What is so difficult about it? English Teachers' Journal 42, 82-8.

Laufer, B. (1992). How Much Lexis is Necessary for Reading comprehension?  In P. J. L. Arnaud &  H.  Bejoint (Eds.), Vocabulary and Applied Linguistics (pp. 126-132). London: Macmillan.

Laufer, B. (1997). The Lexical Threshold of Second Language Reading Comprehension. In  K.  Sajavaara & C. Fairweather (Eds.), Approaches to second language Acquisition (pp. 55-62). University Printing House.

Laufer, B. (1997). The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading. In J.  Coady & T. Huckin (Eds), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp.20-34 ). Cambridge: Cambridge  University Press.

Lin, C., & Huang, L. (2014). Three Approaches to Glossing and their Effects on Vocabulary Learning. Available online at www.elsevier.com/locate/system

Liu, N., & Nation. I. S. P. (1985). Factors Affecting Guessing Vocabulary in Context. RELC Journal, 16(1), 33-42.

Lomicka, L. L. (1998). To Gloss or not to Gloss: A Investigation of Reading Comprehension Online. Language Learning & Technology, 1(2), 41-50.

Marzban, A. (2011). Investigating the Role of Multimedia Annotations in EFL Reading Comprehension. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28 (2011) 72 – 77.

Mehranpour, S., & Rahimi, M. (2010). The Impact of General and Specific Vocabulary Knowledge on Reading and Listening Comprehension: A Case of Iranian EFL learners. Science Direct, 292-300.

Mirhassani, A., Behroozi, P., & Alemi, M. (2008). Effective Reading 2. Tehran: Kasakavosh Publications.

Mirhassani, A., & Farhady, H. (2002). Reading through Interactions (ed). Tehran: Zabankadeh.

Mirhassani, A., & Toosi, A. (1996). The Iimpact of Word Formation on Reading Comprehension. Roshd FLT, 12(44), 59-66.

Mohd Maasum, T., Nambiar, R., & Zarrati, Z. (2014). The Importance of Text Structure Awareness in Promoting Strategic Reading among EFL Readers. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 537-544.

Munkova, D., Munk, M., & Stranovska, E. (2014). Dynamics of Reading Comprehension Skills in Linguistic Intervention Programme. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 936 – 942. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Nagata, N. (1999). The Effectiveness of Computer-assisted Interactive Glosses. Foreign Language Annals, 32, 469-479.

Nagy, W. E., Anderson, R. C., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Learning Word Meanings from Context during Normal Reading. American Educational Research Journal, 13, 440-464.

Nagy, W. E., Herman, P. A., & Anderson, R. C. (1985). Learning Words from Context. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 233-253.

Nuttall, C. (1996 2nd Eds).Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Oxford: Heinemann.

Pak, J. (1986). The Effect of Vocabulary Glossing on ESL Reading Comprehension. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Paradis, C., & willners, C. (2006).Antonym and Negation- the Boundedness Hypothesis. Journal of Pragmatics, 38 (2006) 1051–1080

Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. B. (1993). Reading Comprehension and Second Language Development in a Comprehension-based ESL Program. TESL Canada Journal, 2(1), 9-29.

Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. (1997). Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Reading for Meaning inSsecond Language Acquisition. In. J. COADY, & T. Huckin (Eds.), second language vocabulary Acquisition (pp. 174-200). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Paribakht, T. S., & Wesche, M. (1999). Reading and "Incidental" L2 Vocabulary Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21(2), 195-221.

Parry, K. (1997). Vocabulary and Comprehension: Two portraits. In. J. Coady, & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition (pp. 55-68). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pearson, P. D. (2009). The Roots of Reading Comprehension Instruction. In S. Israel & G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (pp. 3-31). New York: Routledge.

Pearson, P. D., & Gallagher, M. C. (1983). The Instruction of Reading Comprehension. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 317-344.

Razi, S. (2004). The Effects of Cultural Schema and Reading Activities on Reading Comprehension. In M. Singhal (Ed.), Proceeding of the first interactional online conference on second and foreign language teaching and research (pp. 276-293). USA: The Reading Matrix.

Richgels, D. J., & Hansen, R. (1984). Gloss: Helping Students Apply both Skills and Strategies in Reading Content Text. Journal of Reading, 27(4), 312-317.

Roby, W. B. (1999). What's in a Gloss? Language Learning & Technology, 2(2), 94-101.

Rott, S. (2005). Processing Glosses: A Qualitative Exploration of how Form-meaning Connections are established and strengthened. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17, 95- 124.

Rott, S., & Williams, J. (2003). Making Form-meaning Connections while Reading: A Qualitative Analysis of Word Processin. Reading in a Foreign Language, 15, 45-75.

Rott, S., Williams, J., & Cameron, R. (2002). The Effect of Multiple-choice Glosses and Input-output Cycles on Lexical Acquisition and Retention. Language Teaching Research, 6, 183-222.

Rumelhart, D. E. (1977). Toward an Interactive Model of Reading. In S. Dornic (Ed.) Attention Performance (pp. 573-603). New York: Academic Press.

Samuels, S. J., & Kamil, M. L. (1988). Models of the Reading Process. In P. Carrell, J. Devine & D. Eskey (Eds.), Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading (pp. 22-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shu, H., Anderson, R. C., & Zhang, H. (1995). Incidental Learning of Word Meanings while

Reading: A Chinese and American Cross-cultural Study. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(1), 76-95.

Sidek H. M. A., & H. Ab. Rahima. (2015).The Role of Vocabulary Knowledge in Reading Comprehension: a Cross-linguistic study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 50 –56. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Smith, F. (1918). Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, F. (1988): Understanding Reading. Hills dale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Snow, C. (2002). Reading for Understanding: Towards a R & D Program in Reading Comprehension. Washington, DC: RAND Reading Study Group.

Stewart, R. A., & Cross, T. L. (1991). The Effect of Marginal Glosses on Reading Comprehension and Retention. Journal of Reading, 35, 4-12.

Vela, V. (2015). Using glosses for incidental vocabulary. Procedia, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 305-310. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Wolf, D. F. (1993). A Comparison of Assessment Tasks Used in Measuring FL Reading Comprehension. Modern Language Journal, 77, 473-489.

Yoshii, M. (2006). L1 and L2 Glosses: Their Effects on Incidental Vocabulary Learning. Language Learning & Technology, 10(3), 85-101.