EFL Teachers’ Pedagogic Strategies and Students’ Willingness to Communicate: Teachers’ and Learners’ Perceptions

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

This study explored both teachers’ and learners’ perceptions of teachers’ pedagogic strategies which may engender willingness to communicate (WTC) in an English as a foreign language class and the difference between their perceptions to detect how convergent or possibly how divergent these are. The project used a convenience sample of 300 students taking an intermediate English course and their teachers (N=60) in several English Language Institutes in Tabriz, Iran. The instruments included a Likert scale questionnaire on teachers’ pedagogic strategies and learners’ WTC completed by both teachers and learners. Based on the data collected from the questionnaires, it was revealed that the teachers and learners agreed on the role of teachers’ wait time in learners’ WTC but not on the other strategies such as motivating strategies, error correction strategies, and teachers’ congruence. The findings of the study have important implications for teachers in terms of reconsidering their pedagogic strategies to play their facilitating roles in engendering students’ WTC in the class. The results also have the implications for EFL teacher education in the new era of communication.

Keywords


Baker, S. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (2000). The role of gender and immersion in communication and second language orientations. Language learning, 50(2), 311-341.

Batstone, R. (2010). Sociocognitive perspectives on language use and language learning: Oxford University Press Oxford.

Bernales, C. (2016). Towards a comprehensive concept of Willingness to Communicate: Learners' predicted and self-reported participation in the foreign language classroom. System, 56, 1-12.

Bernaus, M., & Gardner, R. C. (2008). Teacher motivation strategies, student perceptions, student motivation, and English achievement. The Modern Language Journal, 92(3), 387-401.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Harvard university press.

Brown, A. V. (2009). Students' and teachers' perceptions of effective foreign language teaching: A comparison of ideals. The Modern Language Journal, 93(1), 46-60.

Cao, Y. (2012). Willingness to communicate and communication quality in ESL classrooms. TESL Reporter, 45(1), 17-36.

Cao, Y., & Philp, J. (2006). Interactional context and willingness to communicate: A comparison of behavior in whole class, group and dyadic interaction. System, 34(4), 480-493.

Cohen, L., Monion, L., & Morris, K. (2000). Research methods in education (5th edn). London UK and New York: USA. Routeledge Falmer.

de Saint Léger, D., & Storch, N. (2009). Learners’ perceptions and attitudes: Implications for willingness to communicate in an L2 classroom. System, 37(2), 269-285.

Dewaele, J.-M. (2015). On emotions in foreign language learning and use. The Language Teacher, 39(3), 13-15.

Dewaele, J.-M., & Dewaele, L. (2018). Learner-internal and learner-external predictors of Willingness to Communicate in the FL Classroom. Journal of the European Second Language Association.

Dornyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learners. Mahwah, New Jorzy: Laurence Ulbanm Associates.

Dornyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dornyei, Z., & Csizer, K. (2012). How to design and analyze surveys in second language acquisition research. In Mackey A. & Gass, S. M. (Eds). Research methods in second language aquisition. (pp. 74-94). Uk: Blackwell.

Dörnyei, Z., & Taguchi, T. (2009). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. Routledge.

Doughty, C., & Varela, E. (1998). Communicative focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 114–138). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ellis, R. (2010). Epilogue: A framework for investigating oral and written corrective feedback. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32(2), 335-349.

Erlam, R. (2008). What do you researchers know about language teaching? Bridging the gap between SLA research and language pedagogy. International Journal of Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 2(3), 253-267.

Farooq, M. (2007). Exploring the effectiveness of spoken English classes of Japanese EFL learners. The Journal of Liberal Arts, 3, 35-57.

Gatbonton, E. (2000). Investigating experienced ESL teachers' pedagogical knowledge. Canadian Modern Language Review, 56(4), 585-616.

González, T. H., & McDonough, K. (2015). The effect of instructor stance on ESL speakers' language production in a conversation group setting. System, 55, 21-29.

Heaton, S. L., Chantrupanth, D., & Rorex, P. D. (2003). Thai Uuniversity EFL learners' oral responses to various spoken question types. Second Language Learning and Teaching, 12, 19-31.

Joe, H.-K., Hiver, P., & Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2017). Classroom social climate, self-determined motivation, willingness to communicate, and achievement: A study of structural relationships in instructed second language settings. Learning and Individual Differences, 53, 133-144.

Kaivanpanah, S., Alavi, S. M., & Sepehrinia, S. (2015). Preferences for interactional feedback: differences between learners and teachers. The Language Learning Journal, 43(1), 74-93.

Kalaja, P., & Barcelos, A. M. F. (2003). Conclusion: Exploring possibilities for future research on beliefs about SLA. In P. Kalaja & A. M. F. Barcelos (Eds.), Beliefs about SLA (pp. 231-238): Springer.

Kang, S.-J. (2005). Dynamic emergence of situational willingness to communicate in a second language. System, 33(2), 277-292.

Katayama, A. (2007). Japanese EFL students’ preferences toward correction of classroom oral errors. Asian EFL journal, 9(4), 289-305.

Khajavy, G. H., MacIntyre, P. D., & Barabadi, E. (2018). Role of the emotions and classroom environment in willingness to communicate: Applying doubly latent multilevel analysis in second language acquisition research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 40(3), 605-624.

Korthagen, F. A., Attema-Noordewier, S., & Zwart, R. C. (2014). Teacher–student contact: Exploring a basic but complicated concept. Teaching and Teacher Education, 40, 22-32.

Kramsch, C. (2008). Ecological perspectives on foreign language education. Language Teaching, 41(3), 389-408.

Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition.

Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications: Addison-Wesley Longman Ltd.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2015). Saying what we mean: Making a case for ‘language acquisition’to become ‘language development’. Language Teaching, 48(4), 491-505.

Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science: selected theoretical papers (edited by dorwin cartwright.).

Long, M. (1996). The role of linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In Ritchie, W., Bhatia, T. (Eds.). Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). San Diego: Academic Press.

Long, M. H. (1983). Linguistic and conversational adjustments to non-native speakers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 5(2), 177-193.

Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19(1), 37-66.

MacIntyre, P. D., Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545-562.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Legatto, J. J. (2010). A dynamic system approach to willingness to communicate: Developing an idiodynamic method to capture rapidly changing affect. Applied Linguistics, 32(2), 149-171.

Mackey, A. (2007). Conversational interaction in second language acquisition: A series of empirical studies: Oxford University Press.

Mackey, A., & Gass, S. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawerence Erlbawn Associates: Inc.

Maeng, U., & Lee, S.-M. (2015). EFL teachers' behavior of using motivational strategies: The case of teaching in the Korean context. Teaching and Teacher Education, 46, 25-36.

McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. In paper presented at the annual convention speech communication association: Denver.

Meijer, P. C., Korthagen, F. A., & Vasalos, A. (2009). Supporting presence in teacher education: The connection between the personal and professional aspects of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(2), 297-308.

Murray, D. E., & Christison, M. (2011). What English language teachers need to know volume II: Facilitating learning: Taylor & Francis.

O’Connor, K. E. (2008). “You choose to care”: Teachers, emotions and professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 117-126.

Peng, J.-E. (2012). Towards an ecological understanding of willingness to communicate in EFL classrooms in China. System, 40(2), 203-213.

Rahimi, M., & Zhang, L. J. (2016). The role of incidental unfocused prompts and recasts in improving English as a foreign language learners' accuracy. The Language Learning Journal, 44(2), 257-268.

Rotgans, J. I., & Schmidt, H. G. (2011). The role of teachers in facilitating situational interest in an active-learning classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(1), 37-42.

Rowe, M. B. (1986). Wait time: slowing down may be a way of speeding up! Journal of teacher education, 37(1), 43-50.

Saeidi, M., & Jabbarpour, N. (2011). EFL teachers' socio-affective startegy use in relation to studnets' academic achievement. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(3).

Schmidt, H. G., & Rotgans, J. I. (2011). The role of teachers in facilitating situational interest in an active-learning classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 37-42.

Seliger, H. W., & Shohamy, E. G. (1989). Second language research methods: Oxford University Press.

Shomoosi, N. (2004). The effect of teachers’ questioning behavior on EFL classroom interaction: a classroom research study. The Reading Matrix, 4(2), 96-104.

Swain, M. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: mediating acquisition through collaborative dialoge. In J. Lantolf (Ed,). Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp.97-114). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tannen, D. (1992). You just don't understand: Women and men in Conversation. London: Virago Press.

Tobin, K. (1987). The role of wait time in higher cognitive level learning. Review of educational research, 57(1), 69-95.

Walsh, S. (2002). Construction or obstruction: Teacher talk and learner involvement in the EFL classroom. Language Teaching Research, 6(1), 3-23.

Yoshida, R. (2008). Teachers' choice and learners' preference of corrective feedback types. Language awareness, 17(1), 78-93.

Zarei, N., Saeidi, M., & Ahangari, S. (2019). Exploring EFL Teachers’ Socioaffective and Pedagogic Strategies and Students’ Willingness to Communicate with a Focus on Iranian Culture. Education Research International, 2019.

Zarrinabadi, N. (2014). Communicating in a second language: Investigating the effect of teacher on learners' willingness to communicate. System, 42, 288-295.