Multiple Pathways to the Student’s Brain: An Appropriate Tool to Impact on EFL Learners’ Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Perceived Supportive Learning Climate

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Psychology, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

10.30495/jal.2020.676935

Abstract

The impetus behind the current study was to get the best use of all possible pathways of the learner’s brain. Multiple-pathway model, one model of brain-based instruction, on which the current study was based, has synergic effect addressing sensory-motor, emotion, reward, attention, memory, language, frontal lobe (executive function), and social pathways of the learner’s brain altogether. To this aim, this quasi-experimental research, with pretest-intervention-posttest design, was carried out. The participants, who were selected through a convenient sampling method, included 30 BA University students studying TEFL at Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul Branch, and 30 BA University students studying TEFL at Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, were placed into two experimental and control groups, respectively. The instrumentation included DASS 21 and Learning Climate Questionnaires (LCQ) which were used as the pretest and posttest prior to and after the 10 session intervention of brain-based instruction for the experimental group. Descriptive and inferential analysis of collected data indicated the significant impact of the instruction on the participants’ stress, anxiety, depression, and perceived supportive learning climate in the experimental group.

Keywords


Altiti, M. (2014). The impact of a brain-based teaching program on improving the achievement of 5th grade students in sciences. Journal of Islamic University, 22 (1), 111-138.

Alizadeh Oghyanous, P. (2017). The effect of brain-based teaching on young EFL learners’ self-efficacy. English Language Teaching; 10 (5), 158-167.

Biabangard, A. (1999). Methods of preventing academic failure. Tehran: Parents and Teachers Associations.

Bruer, J. T. (1998). Brain science, brain fiction. Educational Leadership, 56(3), 14-18.

Caine, R. N., & Caine, G. (1991). Teaching and the human brain. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kemis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 31-49). New York: Plenum

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self-determination research. Rochester, USA: The University of Rochester Press

Duman, B. (2010). The effects of brain-based learning on the academic achievement of students with different learning styles. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 10 (4), 2077-2103.

Fleming, N. D., & Mills, C. (1992). Not another inventory, rather a catalyst for reflection. Retrieved from: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1245&context=podimproveacad. 

Gewirtz, J. C., & Radke, A. K. (2010). Effects of stress on learning and memory.  Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience, 1, 461–468.

Gläser-Zikuda, M., Stuchlíková, I., & Janík, T. (2013). Emotional aspects of learning and teaching: Reviewing the field-discussing the issues. Theoretical and Research Papers, 7 (2), 7−22

Gözüyeşil, E., & Dikic, A. (2014). The effect of brain based learning on academic achievement: A meta-analytical study. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14 (2), 642-648.

Halloun, I. (2017). Mind, brain, and education: A systemic perspective. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312576567_Mind_Brain_and_Education_A_Systemic_Perspective

Handayani, B. S., & Corebima, A.D. (2017).  Model brain based learning (BBL) and whole brain teaching (WBT) in learning. International Journal of Science and Applied Science, 1 (2), 153-161.

Hasani, M., Dastjerdy, R., &, Pakdaman, M. (2015). The effect of brain-based learning on attitude and academic achievement of students in mathematics. Research in Curriculum Planning, 12 (2), 61-73. 

Hashemi, M. (2011). Language stress and anxiety among the English language learners.

           Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1811 – 1816.

Herson, L. A. (2006). Brain-compatible research: using brain-based techniques to positively impact student learning. Unpublished MA thesis. University of South Florida, Florida, USA.

Jensen, E. (2011). Brain based learning paradigm of teaching. Jakarta: Indeks

Jensen, E. (2000). Brain-Based Learning. CA: Brain Store Inc.

Legault, L. (2017). Self-determination theory. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317690916_Self-Determination_Theory

Lewin, K. (2007). Depression assessment. Practice Nurse Journal, 33 (12), 43-45.

Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales   (DASS). New South Wales: Psychology Foundation Monograph.

Makino, H., Hwang, E., J., Hedrick, N. G., & Komiyama. (2017). Circuit mechanisms of sensorimotor learning, HHS, 92 (4), 705–721.

Meshkin Mehr, A. R., Pourmohamah, M., Noushi, M., & Talkhabi, M. (2019).  Investigating the effect of applying brain-based learning principles on the learning and retention of vocabulary by EFL Learners. Critical Language and Literary Studies, 16 (32), 239-270. 

Nejati, M., & Akbari, S. (2017). The impact of depression on learning. Journal of Humanities and Islamic Strategic Studies, 1 (5), 85-99.

Noorbala, A. (2011). Psychosocial health and strategies for improvement. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology 17 (2), 151-156.

Noureen, G., Awan, R. N., & Fatima, H. (2017). Effect of brain-based learning on academic achievement of VII graders in mathematics. Journal of Elementary Education, 27 (2), 85-97.

 

Ozden, M., & Gultekin, M. (2008). The effects of brain-based learning on academic achievement and retention of knowledge in science course, Electronic Journal of Science Education 12 (1), 3-19.

Ofoghi, N., Sadeghi, A., & Babaei, M (2016). Impact of class atmosphere on the quality of learning. Psychology, 7, 1645-1657.

Ramakrishnan, J. (2013). Brain based strategies. International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies, 2 (5), 235+244.

Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Ryan, R. M., Kuhl, J., & Deci, E. L. (1997). Nature and autonomy: Organizational view of social and neurobiological aspects of self-regulation in behavior and development. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 701-728.

Roohi, A. (2013). Theoretical and practical approaches to anxiety disorders in children. Exceptional Education 3 (125), 42-59.

Shabatat,K., & Al-Tarawneh, M. (2016). The impact of a teaching-learning program based on a brain-based learning on the achievement of the female students of 9th grade in chemistry. Higher Education Studies, 6 (2), 162-174.

Talkhabi. M. (2008). Brain-based syllabus .Quarterly Journal of Educational Innovations, 7 (26), 127-150.

Tobias, S. (1983). Anxiety and cognitive processing of instruction. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Jila/Downloads/Anxiety_and_Cognitive_Processing_of_Instruction.pdf

Tüfekçia, S., & Demirel, M. (2009). The effect of brain based learning on achievement, retention, attitude and learning process. World Conference on Educational Sciences, 1, 1782-1791.

Vanin, J. R. (2008). Overview of anxiety and the anxiety disorders anxiety disorder. Anxiety Disorders, 3, 1-18.

Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 767– 779

Zedina, J. (2014). Multiple pathways to the student’s brain: Energizing and enhancing instruction. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Brand.