Developing a Questionnaire for Assessing Iranian English Learners'/Teachers' World Englishes Conceptualization-Guilan Universities

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Department of English, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mazandaran, Iran

10.30495/jal.2020.683713

Abstract

The unprecedented growth of the number of World Englishes and needs of communication among experts calls for English language teaching programs to take into consideration the place and relevance of teachers' and learners' conceptualization of paradigm of WEs. The present research studies the global status of WEs and its conceptualization among Iranian English teachers and learners. It is presenting a thematic instrument to examine the extent to which Iranian EFL and ELIC-SP teachers' and learners' conceptualization of WEs can be effective in the fields of global communication, research, development and science. In the first phase of the present study a theoretical framework and its components were developed through reviewing the literature and conducting interviews with ELT experts and EFL and ESP learners. In the second phase, a questionnaire was developed and piloted with 300 participants who were available and willing to participate in the study. The 46 items of the newly-developed ‘WEs Con.' scale were subjected to principal component analysis which revealed the presence of four components, relevance of WEs Con. To EFL, ESP, Culture, Ownership of English and Standard English. These phases led to the development of a questionnaire with four components and 46 items.

Keywords


Abdi, H., & Asadi, B. (2015). A Synopsis of researches on teachers’ and learners’ beliefs about language learning. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature, 3(4), 104-114.
Alatis, J. ,  & Straehle, C. (1997). The universe of English: Imperialism, chauvinism, and paranoia. In L. Smith & M. Forman (Eds.), World Englishes 2000 (pp. 1- 20). Honolulu: University of Hawaii.
Andrews, L. (1998). Language exploration and awareness: A resource book for teachers (2nd Ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Andrews, L. (2001). Linguistics for L2 teachers.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Razavieh, A. (1990). Introduction to research in education (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Bamgbose, A. (1998). Torn between the Norms Innovations in World Englishes. World Englishes, 17, 1-14.
Baumgardner, R. J. (1987). Utilizing Pakistani newspaper English to teach grammar. World Englishes, 6(3), 241–52.
Barriball, K. L., & While, A. (1994). Collecting data using a semi-structured interview          Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19, 328-335.
Bartels, N. (2002). Action research and professional preparation: Only for language teachers? TESOL Quarterly, 1(1), 71-79.
Bartels, N. (2005). Applied linguistics and language teacher education. New York: Springer.
Bartlett, M. S. (1954). A note on the multiplying factors for various chi square approximations. Journal of Royal Statistical Society,16(Series B), 296-298.
Benesch, S. (2001). Critical English for academic purposes: Theory, politics, and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Binnie-Smith, D. (1996). Teacher decision making in the adult ESL classroom. Teacher learning in language teaching. In D. Freeman, & J. C. Richards, (Eds.), Teacher learning in language teaching, (pp. 197 - 216). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bhowmik, S. K. (2015). World Englishes and English language teaching: A pragmatic and humanistic approach. Colombian Applied Linguistic Journal, 17(1), 142-157.
Birello, M. (2012). Teacher cognition and manguage teacher education: beliefs and practice. A conversation with Simon Borg. Bellaterra Journal of Teaching and Learning Language & Literature, 5 (2), 88- 94.
Bolton, K. (2004). World Englishes. In A. Davies & C. Elder (Eds.), The handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 367-396). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Bolton, K. (2005). Where WE stands: approaches, issues, and debate in world Englishes. World Englishes, 24(1), 69-83.
Bolton, K. (2008). English in Asia, Asian Englishes, and the issue of proficiency. English Today, 24, 3–12.
Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36(2), 81-109.
Borg, S. (2009). Introducing language teacher cognition. http:// www. education. leeds.ac. uk/ assets/files/staff/borg/Introducing-language-teacher-cognition.pdf
Borg, S. (2015, September 19). Language teacher cognition bibliography. Retrieved January 20, 2016, from http://simon-borg.co.uk/wp-content/uploads /2013/03/Borg- Language- Teacher-Cognition-Bibliography-19.09.15.pd
Bourdieu, P. (1977). The economics of linguistic exchanges. Social Science Information, 16, 645–668.
Byrnes, D., Kiger, G., & Manning, M. (1997). Teachers’ attitudes about language diversity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13, 637–644.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. London: Sage.
Crystal, D. (1994).Which English-or English Which? In M. Hayhoe, & S. Parker, (Eds.), Who owns English? (pp. 108-115). Buckingham: Open University.
Crystal,D. (2003). English as a global language (Second Ed.). New York, United States of America: Cambridge University Press.
Cumming, A. (1989). Student teachers' conceptions of curriculum: Toward an understanding of language-teacher development. TESL Canada Journal, 7(1), 33 - 51.
D’Angelo, J. F. (2014a). The 11th Asia TEFL International Conference: “Englishes across Asian contexts: Opportunities and challenges”. Asian Englishes, 16(1) 1-5. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13488678.2013.877215
D’Angelo, J. F. (2014b). The WEs/EIL paradigm and Japan’s NS propensity: going beyond the ‘friendly face’ of West-based TESOL. In R. Marlina & R. Giri (Eds.), The pedagogy of English as an international language: perspectives from scholars, teachers, and learners (pp. 221-238). London: Springer.
DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development theory and applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Derwing, T. M., Munro, Murray, J. (2005). Pragmatic perspectives on the preparation of teachers of English as a second language: putting the NS/NNS debate in context. In E. Llurda, (Ed.), Non-native language teachers: Perceptions, challenges and contributions to the profession (pp. 179-191). New York: Springer.
Dogancay-Aktuna, S. (2006). Expanding the socio-cultural knowledge base of TESOL education. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 19(3), 278-295. DOI:10.1080/07908310608668768
Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies. Oxford university Press: Oxford.
Fiedler, S. (2010). The English-as-a-lingua-franca approach Linguistic fair play? Language problems & language planning, 34(3), 201-221.
Freeman, D. (1992). Language teacher education, emerging discourse, and change in classroom practice. In J. Flowerdew, M. Brock, & S. Hsia,. (Eds.), Perspectives on language teacher education (pp. 1-21). Hong Kong: Hong Kong City Polytechnic.
Freeman, D. (1993). Remaining experience/reconstructing practice: Developing new understandings of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 9(5), 485-497.
Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the work: teacher knowledge and learning to teach- review article. Language Teaching, 35(1), 1-13.
Golombek, P. R. (1998). A study of language teachers' personal practical knowledge. TESOL Quarterly, 32(3), 447-464.
Graddol, D. (1997). The future of English? London: The British Council.
Graddol, D. (2006). English next. London: British Council.
Gutierrez Almarza, G. (1996). Student foreign language teacher's knowledge growth. In D. Freeman, & J. C. Richards, (Eds.). Teacher learning in language teaching (pp. 50 - 78). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, G. (2010). International English language testing: A critical response. ELT Journal, 64(3), 321–328.
Hashemi, M. R. & Babaii, E. (2013). Mixed methods research: Toward new research designs in applied linguistics. The Modern Language Journal, 97(4), 828-852.
Higgins, C. (2003) ‘Ownership’ of English in the outer circle: an alternative to the NS–NNS dichotomy. TESOL Quarterly, 37 (4), 615–44.
Holliday, A. (2005). The struggle to teach English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hu, G. (2012). Assessing English as an international language. In L. Alsagoff, S. L. McKay, G. Hu, & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Principles and practices for teaching English as an international language (pp. 123–143). New York: Routledge.
Jenkins, J. (2009). English as a lingua franca: interpretations and attitudes. World Englishes, 28(2), 200-207. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.2009.01582.x
Jenkins, J. (2014). English as a Lingua Franca in the International University: The Politics of Academic English Language Policy. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Johnson, K. E. (1994). The Emerging beliefs and instructional practices or pre-Service English as second language teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10(4), 439- 452.
Kachru, B. B. (Ed.) (1982). The Other tongue: English across cultures. Urbana, The United States of America: University of Illinois Press.
Kachru, B. B. (1983). The Indianization of English. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Kachru, B. B. (1985) Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: the English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk and H.G. Widdowson (Eds), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures (pp. 11-30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kachru, B. B. (1986a). The alchemy of English: The spread, functions, and models of non- native Englishes. New York: Pergamon Institute of English.
Kachru, B. B. (1986b). The power and politics of English. World Englishes, 5(2-3), 121- 140. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.1986.tb00720.x
Kachru, B. B. (1992). World Englishes: Approaches, issues and resources. Language Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(01), 1-14. doi: 10.1017/S0261444800006583.
 Kachru, B. B. (1992a). Models for non-native Englishes. In B. B. Kachru, (Ed.), The other tongue: English across cultures (pp.48-74). Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Kachru,B. B. (1992b). The second diaspora of English. In Tim W. Machan and Charles T.Scott (eds). English in its social contexts. Essays in historical sociolinguistics (pp. 230–52). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kachru, Y. (2011). World Englishes: Contexts and relevance for language education. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Vol. 2, pp. 155–172). New York: Routledge.
Kachru, B. B. (1994). Englishization and contact linguistics. World Englishes, 13(2), 135- 154. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.1994.tb00303.x.
Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implications of research on teacher beliefs. Educational Psychologist, 27(1), 65-90.
Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.
Kandiah, T. (1987). New varieties of English: The creation of the paradigm and its radicalization. Navasilu. 10, 31–41.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2002). ASEAN and Asian cultures and models: implications for the ELT curriculum and for teacher selection. In A. Kirkpatrick (Ed.) Englishes in Asia: Communication, identity, politics and education (pp. 213-224). Melbourne: Language Australia.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2006). Which model of English: Native-speaker, nativized or lingua franca. In R. Rubdy & M. Saraceni (Eds.), English in the world (pp. 71-83). London, Great Britain: Continuum.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). World Englishes. Implications for international communication and English language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2007a). Teaching English across cultures. What do English language teachers need to know to know to teach English. English Australia Journal, 23 (2), 20-36.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2008). Learning English and other languages in multilingual settings. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 31(3), 31.33-31.11.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2009). English as the international language of scholarship: implications for the dissemination of 'local' knowledge. In F. Sharifian (Ed.), English as an international language: Perspectives and pedagogical issues (pp. 254-270). Bistol, U.K, Buffalo, USA,Toronto, Canada: Multilingual Matters.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2010a). The Routledge handbook of world Englishes. Hoboken: Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2010b). Researching English as a lingua franca in Asia: The Asian corpus of English (ACE) project. Asian Englishes, 13(1), 4-18.
Lewins, A., & Silver, C. (2007). Using software in qualitative research: A step-by-step guide. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Lincoln, Y. S. & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverley Hills:Sage.
Lutnpe, A. T., & Chambers, E. (2001). Assessing teachers’ context beliefs about technology use. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(1), 93–108.
Martin, P. I. (2010). Periphery ELT: the politics and practice of teaching English in the Philippines. In A. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), The Routledge handbook of world Englishes (pp. 247--264). USA: Routledge.
Matsuda, A. (2003). Incorporating World Englishes in teaching English as an international language. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 719–729. doi: 10.2307/3588220.
Matsuda, A. (2012). Introduction: Teaching English as an International Language. In A. Matsuda (Ed.), Principals and practices of teaching English as an international language (pp. 1-14). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Matsuda, A. (2013). World Englishes and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages.In C. Chapelle, The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (pp. 1-7). Hoboken, New Jersey, United States: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Retrieved from http: // onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal1293/pdf
McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an international language: Rethinking goals and 
approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ovando, C. (2001). Language diversity and education. In J. Banks & C. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education (pp. 268–291). New York: Wiley.
Pandharipande, R. (1987). On nativization of English. World Englishes, 6(2), 149-158.
Parmegiani,  A.  (2008).  Language  ownership  in  multilingual  settings:  Exploring attitudes among learners entering the University of KwaZulu-Natal through the Access Program. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics, 38, 107-124.
Pennycook, A. (2001). Critical applied linguistics: A critical introduction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Reagan, T. (1997). The case for applied linguistics in teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 48, 185–195.
Richards, J. C., Ho, B., & Giblin, K. (1996). Learning how in the RSA Cert. In D. Freeman &
J.  C.  Richards  (Eds.),   Teacher  learning  in  language  teaching   (pp.     242-59).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Prator, E. (1968). The British heresy in TESL. In J.A. Fishman, e.A. Ferguson& 1. Das Gupta (Eds.), Language problems in developing nations (pp.459-76). New York: John Wiler.
Quirk, R. (1988). The question of standards in the international use of English. In P. Lowenberg (Ed.). Language spread and language policy: Issues, implications and case studies (pp. 229–41). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Quirk, R. (1990). Language varieties and the language standard. English Today. 6 (1), 3–10.
Quirk, R., Sidney. G., Geoffrey L., & Jan, S. (1972). A grammar of contemporary English. Longman Group: UK
Saussure, F. d. (1966). Course in general linguistics (C. Bally, A.Sechehaye  & A. Riedlinger Eds.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Schneider, E. (2010). Developmental patterns of English: Similar or different?,” in A. Kirkpatrick (ed.) The Routledge handbook of world Englishes (pp. 372–84), London: Routledge, pp..
Schneider, E. (2014a). New reflections on the evolutionary dynamics of world Englishes. World Englishes, 33(1), 9-32. doi: 10.1111/weng.12069
Schneider, E. W. (2014b). Asian Englishes – into the future: a bird’s eye view. Asian Englishes, 1-8. doi: 10.1080/21639159.2014.949439
Seargeant, P. (2012). Exploring world Englishes: Language in a global context. Abingdon:  Taylor & Francis.
Sharifian, F. (2006). A cultural-conceptual approach and World Englishes: The case of aboriginal English. World Englishes, 25(1), 11–22. DOI: 10.1111/j.0083- 2919.2006.00444.x
Sharifian, F. (2014). Teaching English as an International Language in Multicultural Contexts: Focus on Australia. In R. Marlina & R. A. Giri (Eds.), The pedagogy of English as an International Language: Perspectives from scholars, teachers, and learners (pp. 35- 46). Switzerland Springer International Publishing.
Smith, L. &   Sridhar, N.S. (Eds) (1992). World Englishes 11: Special issue on the extended family - English in global bilingualism (Studies in honor of Braj Kachru).New York: Pergamon Press.
Sinicrope, C., Norris, J., Watanabe, Y. (2007). Understanding and assessing intercultural competence: A summary of theory, research, and practice. Second Language Studies, 26(1), 1-58.
Strevens, P. (1980). Teaching English as an international language: From practice to principle. Oxford: Pergamon.
Tamami Sa'd , S. H.(2018). Learners’ views of (non)native speaker status, accent, and identity: an English as an international language perspective. Journal of World Englishes, 5(1),1-22
Widdowson, H. G. (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 377-389.
Widdowson, H.G. (1997). EIL, ESL, EFL: Global issues and local interests. World Englishes, 16(1), 135-146.