Bangert-Drowns, R. L. (1993). The word processor as an instructional tool: A meta-analysis of word processing in writing instruction. Review of Educational Research, 63 (l), 69-93.
Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1990). Early spelling acquisition: Writing beats the computer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 159-162.
Deutscher & Lehrerverband (2015). UmfrageunterLehrernmachtdeutlich: ProblememitdemHandschreiben in der Schulenehmenzu [Survey among teachers points out: Problems with handwriting in schools increase]. Retrieved from
Khishdari (2014).The effect of word-processors on the spelling errors and the difference between the number of typing and handwriting spelling mistakes of students at Islamic Azad University, TAFT Branch. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World,6 (1), 422- 429.
Lee, H. K. (2004). A comparative study of ESL writers' performance in a paper-based and a computer-delivered writing test. Assessing Writing, 9, 4–26.
Li, J. (2005). The Mediation of Technology in ESL writings and its implications for writing assessment. Assessing Writing, 11, 5–21.
Mangen, A., & Velay, J.L. (2010). Digitizing literacy: Reflections on the haptics of writing.In M. H. Zadeh (Ed.), Advances in Haptics (pp. 385-402). Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
McAllister, C. &Louth, R. (1988).The effect of word processing on the quality of basic writers' revisions. Research in the Teaching of English, 22 (4), 417-427.
Mogey, N., Paterson, J., Burk, J., & Purcell, M. (2010). Typing compared with handwriting for essay examinations at university: letting the students choose. Research in Learning Technology, 18 (1), 29–47.
Ouellette, G., & Tims, T. (2014). The write way to spell: Printing vs. typing effects on orthographic learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 117.
Pennington, M. C. (1996). The computer and the non-native writer: A natural partnership. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
Rodrigues, D. (1985). Computers and basic writers. College Composition and Communication, 36, 336-339.
Schwartz, H., Fitzpatrik, C., &Huot, B. (1994).The computer medium in writing for discovery. Computers and Composition, 11, 137–149.
Sharpe, P. J. (2006). How to prepare for the TOEFL iBT.(12th Ed.). New York: Barron's Educational Series.
Susser, B. (1994). Process approaches in ESL/EFL writing instruction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3, 31–47.
Vaughn, S., Schumm, J. S., & Gordon, J. (1992). Early spelling acquisition: Does writing really beat the computer? Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 223-228.
Warschauer, M. & Healey, D. (1998) Computer and language learning: An overview. Language Teaching, 31 (2), 57-71.