The Comparative Effect of Visual vs. Auditory Input Enhancement on Learning Non-Congruent Phrasal Verbs by Iranian EFL Learners

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of English, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Vocabulary is one of the essential components of language and learning phrasal verbs as part of vocabulary is quite challenging for foreign language learners. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of visual and auditory input enhancement on learning non-congruent phrasal verbs. The participants of the study were 90 intermediate English language learners who were divided into two experimental and one control groups. The first experimental group received visual input enhancement and the second experimental group auditory input enhancement, and the control group no enhanced material. All three groups were tested on their knowledge of non-congruent phrasal verbs before and after the treatment, using a non-congruent phrasal verb test developed by the researcher. The results of the data analyses indicated that both visual and auditory input enhancement were effective in learning non-congruent phrasal verbs by Iranian EFL learners, and that both groups outperformed the control group in their achievement. 



Alanen, R. (1995). Input enhancement and rule presentation in second language acquisition. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 259302). Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.

Anderson, J. (1980). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: W.H., Freeman.

BadriAhmadi, F., &Panahandeh, E. (2016). The Role of Input-based and Output-based Language Teaching in Learning English Phrasal Verbs by Upper-intermediate Iranian EFL Learners. Journal of Education and Learning, 10(1), 22-33.

Birjandi, P., Alavi, S. M., & Najafi, Karimi, Sh. (2015). Effects of unenhanced, enhanced, and elaborated input on learning English phrasal verbs. International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning, 4(1), 43-59.

Chaudron, C. (1982). Vocabulary elaboration in teachers’ speech to L2 learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 4(2), 170–180.

Chaudron, C. (1988). Second language classrooms: Research on teaching and learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cho, M., &Reinders, H. (2013). The effects of aural input enhancement on L2 acquisition. In J.   M. Bergsleithner, S. N. Frota, & J. K. Yoshioka (Eds.), Noticing and second language acquisition: Studies in honor of Richard Schmidt (pp.133 –148). Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i, National Foreign Language Resource Center

Dahl, D. A. (1981). The role of experience in speech modifications for second language learners. Minnesota Papers in Linguistics and Philosophy of Language, 7(2), 78-93.


Danks, J. (1980). Comprehension in listening and reading: Same or different? In J. Danks& K. Pezdek (Eds.), Reading and understanding (pp. 25–40). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Doughty, C. (1988). The effect of instruction on the acquisition of relativization in English as a second language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Doughty, C. (1991). Second language instruction does make a difference. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 431–469.

Doughty, C., & Varela, E. (1998). Communicative focus on form. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp. 114–138). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gass, S. M. (1997). Input, interaction and the second language learner. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ghabanchi, Z., &Goudarzi, E. (2012). Avoidance of phrasal verbs in participants English: A study of Iranian students. World Journal of English Language, 2(2), 43-54.

Håkansson, G. (1986). Quantitative aspects of teacher talk. In G. Kasper (Ed.), Learning, teaching, and communication in the foreign language classroom (pp. 83–98). Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press.

Henzl, V. (1973). Linguistic register of foreign language instruction. Language Learning, 23(3), 207–227.

Henzl, V. (1979). Foreigner talk in the classroom. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 17(2), 159–167.

Izumi, S. (2002). Output, input enhancement and the noticing hypothesis: An experimental study on ESL relativization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 541–577.

Johnson, J. (1992). Critical period effects in second language acquisition: The effect of written versus auditory materials on the assessment of grammatical competence. Language Learning, 42(3), 48-217.

Jourdenais, R., Ota, M., Stauffer, S., Boyson, B., & Doughty, C. (1995). Does textual enhancement promote noticing? A think-aloud protocol analysis. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 183-216). Honolulu: Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Khatib, M., &Ghannadi, M. (2011). Interventionist (explicit and implicit) versus non-interventionist (incidental) learning of phrasal verbs by Iranian EFL participants. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(3), 537-546.


Koprowski, M. (2005). Investigating the usefulness of lexical phrases in contemporary course books. ELT Journal, 59(4), 322-332.

Laufer, B., &Eliasson, S. (1993). What causes avoidance in L2 learning: L1-L2 difference, L1-L2 similarity or L2 complexity? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15(1), 35-48.

Leeman, J., Arteagoitia, I. Fridman, B., & Doughty, C. (1995). Integrating attention to form with meaning: Focus on form in content-based Spanish instruction. In R. Schmidt (Eds.), Attention & awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 217-258). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Leow, p. (2001). Do Learners Notice Enhanced Forms while Interacting with the L2?: An Online and Offline Study of the Role of Written Input Enhancement in L2 Reading. Hispania 84(3), 496-509.

Liao, Y., &Fukuya, Y. J. (2004). Avoidance of phrasal verbs: The case of Chinese participants of English. Language Learning, 54(2), 193-226.

Lujan, H., G. and DiCarlo, S., E. (2006). First-year medical students prefer multiple learning styles. Advances in Physiology Education, 30(1), 13-16

MahdaviResketi, B., &Bagheri, B. (2014). EFL Learners’ Incidental Acquisition of English Phrasal Verbs through Enhanced Extensive Reading vs. Unenhanced Extensive Reading. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, 2(8), 33-42.

Michael, M., & O'Dell, F. (2006). English Phrasal Verbs in Use. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Miller P. (2006). Learning styles: the multimedia of the mind. Educational Resources Information Center. ED 451140

Moon, R. (1997). Fixed expressions and idioms in English: A corpus-based approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Murphy, V. (1997). The effect of modality on a grammaticality judgment task. Second Language Research, 13(1), 34–65.

Nakata, T. (2006). English collocation learning through meaning-focused and form- focused tasks. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Nesselhauf N. (2003). The Use of Collocations by Advanced Learners of English and Some Implications for Teaching, Applied Linguistics,12 (1), 223–242.

Norris, J., & Ortega, L. (2000). Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50(5), 417-528.

Penny, C. (1980). Order of report in bisensory verbal short-term memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 34(2), 95-190.


Rost, M. (1990). Listening in language learning. London: Longman.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 129-158.

Schmitt, N. (2000). Vocabulary in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, M. (1991). Speaking to many minds: On the relevance of different types of language information for the L2 learner. Second Language Research, 7(1), 118–132.

Smith, M. S. (1993). Consciousness raising and the second language learner. In Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 36-48.

VanPatten, B. (2004). Input processing in second language acquisition. Processing instruction: Theory, research, and commentary (pp. 5-31). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wesche, M., & Ready, D. (1985). Foreigner talk in the university classroom. In S. Gass& C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 89–114). Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.

Wong, W. (2001). Modality and attention to meaning and form in the input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 23(4), 345–368.

Wray, A. (2002). Formulaic language and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ziegler, N., Meurers, D., Rebuschat, P., Ruiz, S., Moreno-Vega, J., Chinkina, M., Li, W., and Greye, S. (2017).  Interdisciplinary Research at the Intersection of CALL, NLP, and SLA: Methodological Implications From an Input Enhancement Project. Language Learning. pp. 1–23